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FOLDOC Słownik terminów komputerowych

"The time you enjoy wasting is not time wasted." --
Bertrand Russell.
Here are some games-related pages on the Web: {Imperial
Nomic (http://www.mit.edu:8001/people/achmed/fascist/)},
{Thoth's games and recreations page
(http://www.cis.ufl.edu/~thoth/library/recreation.html)},
Games Domain (http://wcl-rs.bham.ac.uk/GamesDomain),
{Zarf's List of Games on the Web
(http://www.leftfoot.com/games.html)},
{Dave's list of pointers to games resources
(http://wcl-rs.bham.ac.uk/~djh/index.html)},
{Collaborative Fiction
(http://asylum.cid.com/fiction/fiction.html)}.
See also 3DO, ADL, ADVENT, ADVSYS, {alpha/beta
pruning}, Amiga, CHIP-8, Core Wars, DROOL, empire,
I see no X here., Infocom, Inglish, initgame, life,
minimax, moria, mudhead, multi-user Dimension,
nethack, ogg, plugh, rogue, SPACEWAR, {virtual
reality}, wizard mode, wumpus, xyzzy, ZIL, zorkmid.
See also game theory.
(1996-03-03)

(JDBC) Part of the {Java Development
Kit} which defines an application programming interface for
Java for standard SQL access to databases from Java
programs.
{Home
(http://java.sun.com/products/jdk/
1.1/docs/guide/jdbc/index.html)}.
FAQ (http://www.yoyoweb.com/Javanese/JDBC/FAQ.html).
See also Open Database Connectivity.
(1997-09-04)

Java code that runs as part of a network
service, typically an HTTP server and responds to requests
from clients. For example, a client may need
information from a database; a servlet can be written that
receives the request, gets and processes the data as needed by
the client and then returns the result to the client.
Servlets are named after applets which are also written in
Java but which run inside the JVM of a HTML browser on
the client. Servlets and applets allow the server and
client to be extended in a modular way by dynamically loading
code which communicates with the main program via a standard
programming interface.
(http://jeeves.javasoft.com/products/java-server/servlets/index.html).
(1998-01-27)

The original multitasking {operating
system} that NeXT Software [were they called that then?]
developed to run on its proprietary NeXT computers
(informally known as "black boxes"). NEXTSTEP includes a
specific graphical user interface, an interface builder,
object-oriented application builder and several "kits" of
prebuilt software objects such as the Indexing Kit for
databases. This software runs on top of NeXT's version of the
Mach operating system on NeXT, 486, Pentium, HP-PA
and Sun SPARC computers.
The last release of NEXTSTEP was
3.3 which NeXT then developed
into "OpenStep". After NeXT was bought by {Apple Computer,
Inc.} OpenStep was merged[?] into "Rhapsody".
(http://turnpike.net/metro/bagingry/index.html)
(1997-10-15)

/net'ee-ket/ or /net'i-ket/ Network
etiquette.
The conventions of politeness recognised on Usenet and in
mailing lists, such as not (cross-)posting to inappropriate
groups and refraining from commercial advertising outside the
biz groups.
The most important rule of netiquette is "Think before you
post". If what you intend to post will not make a positive
contribution to the newsgroup and be of interest to several
readers, don't post it! Personal messages to one or two
individuals should not be posted to newsgroups, use private
e-mail instead.
When following up an article, quote the minimum necessary to
give some context to your reply and be careful to attribute
the quote to the right person. If the article you are
responding to was posted to several groups, edit the
distribution ("Newsgroups:") header to contain only those
groups which are appropriate to your reply, especially if the
original message was posted to one or more inappropriate
groups in the first place.
Re-read and edit your posting carefully before you post.
Check the spelling and grammar. Keep your lines to less than
70 characters. Don't post test messages (except to test
groups) - wait until you have something to say. When posting
humorous or sarcastic comments, it is conventional to append
a smiley, but don't overuse them.
Before asking a question, read the messages already in the
group and read the group's FAQ if it has one. When you do
post a question, follow it with "please reply by mail and I
will post a summary if requested" and make sure you DO post a
summary if requested, or if only a few people were interested,
send them a summary by mail. This avoids umpteen people
posting the same answer to the group and umpteen others
posting "me too"s.
If you believe someone has violated netiquette, send them a
message by _private e-mail_, DO NOT post a follow-up to the
news. And be polite, they may not realise their mistake, they
might be a beginner or may not even have been responsible for
the "crime" - their account may have been used by someone else
or their address forged.
Be proud of your postings but don't post just to see your name
in pixels. Remember: your future employer may be reading.
{Netiquette for Usenet Site Administrators
(http://ancho.ucs.indiana.edu/FAQ/USAGN/index.html)}.
{"net.acceptable"
(http://arganet.tenagra.com/Tenagra/net-acceptable.html)}.
(1995-01-05)

A company floated in March 199
4.
Home (http://www.unipalm.co.uk/index.html).
(1996-12-11)

A LukeCo Company that designs web pages and web
software. Not to be confused with Net:X.
Home (http://members.aol.com/netx11/index.html).
(1996-12-15)

A cellular automata circuit board which is a
hardware implementation from Automatrix of the MIT CAM-6
machine. It comes with dozens of experiments and
applications.
Home (http://www.automatrix.com/campc/index.html)
(1995-04-21)

(JDK) A free Sun Microsystems product
which provides the environment required for programming in
Java. The JDK is available for a variety of platforms,
but most notably Sun Solaris and Microsoft Windows.
Home (http://java.sun.com/products/jdk/
1.1/index.html).
[Version?]
(1997-09-04)

(RMI) Part of the Java programming language
library which enables a Java program running on one computer
to access the objects and methods of another Java program
running on a different computer.
{Home
(http://java.sun.com/products/jdk/
1.1/docs/guide/rmi/index.html)}
(1997-09-04)

A remotely accessible program that lets
you do keyword searches for information on the Internet.
There are several types of search engine; the search may cover
titles of documents, URLs, headers, or the full text.
{A list of search engines
(http://cuiwww.unige.ch/meta-index.html#MISC)}, Centre
Universitaire d'Informatique at the University of Geneva
(1995-11-28)

(KADS) A structured way of developing
knowledge-based systems (expert systems). KADS was
developed as an alternative to an evolutionary approach and is
now accepted as the European standard for knowledge based
systems.
(http://www.cse.unsw.edu.au/~timm/pub/slides/kltut/index.html).
["Knowledge Based Systems Analysis and Design: A KADS
Developers Handbook", Tansley and Hayball]
(1998-03-12)

A disk drive from Iomega Corporation
which takes removable 100 megabyte hard disks. Both
internal and external drives are manufactured, making the
drive suitable for backup, mass storage or for moving files
between computers. Software is included to help with file
organisation. The internal SCSI model offers up to 60 MB /
minute transfer rate.
The Zip drive was awarded Byte's Readers' {Hardware Choice
Award 1996 (http://www.byte.com/art/9607/sec11/art
1.htm)}.
The company has started to manufacture a larger Jaz drive,
which takes one gigbyte disks.
Home (http://www.iomega.com/index.html)
(1997-03-23)

/see`-yoo-see'-mee/ ("CU" from {Cornell
University}) A shareware personal computer-based
videoconferencing program for use over the Internet,
developed at Cornell University, starting in 199
2.
CU-SeeMe allows for direct audiovisual connections between
clients, or, like irc, it can support multi-user
converencing via servers (here called "reflectors") to
distribute the video and audio signals between multiple
clients.
CU-SeeMe was the first videoconferencing tool available at a
reasonable price (in this case, free) to users of personal
computers.
Home (http://cu-seeme.cornell.edu/).
(http://home.stlnet.com/~hubble/cuseeme/index.html).
Compare with multicast backbone.
(1996-12-01)


1. A record of previous user inputs (e.g. to
a command interpreter) which can be re-entered without
re-typing them. The major improvement of the C shell (csh)
over the Bourne shell (sh) was the addition of a command
history. This was still inferior to the history mechanism on
VMS which allowed you to recall previous commands as the
current input line. You could then edit the command using
cursor motion, insert and delete. These sort of history
editing facilities are available under tcsh and GNU Emacs.
2. {The history of computing
(http://ei.cs.vt.edu/~history/index.html)}.
3. See Usenet newsgroups news:soc.history and
news:alt.history for discussion of the history of the world.
(1995-04-05)

The man who founded {Netscape Communications
Corporation} in April 1994 with Dr. James H. Clark.
Andreessen has been a director since September 199
4.
As an undergraduate at the University of Illinois in
Champaign, Andreessen created the Mosaic web browser
prototype with a team of students and staff at the
university's National Center for Supercomputing Applications
(NCSA). With a friendly, point-and-click method for
navigating the Internet and free distribution to network
users, NCSA Mosaic gained an estimated two million users
worldwide in just over one year. Andreessen earned his
bachelor of science degree in computer science at the
University of Illinois in 199
3.
{Home
(http://www.netscape.com/columns/techvision/index.html)}.
(1999-04-12)

An IBM mainframe operating system,
featuring integrated MVS, UNIX, LAN, {distributed
computing} and application enablement services through its
base elements. These base services enable open, distributed
processing and offer a foundation for object-ready application
development. The OS/390 base includes a {Communication
Server} that includes VTAM, the VTAM AnyNet feature,
TCP/IP and TIOC. It provides SNA (3270), APPC,
High Performance Routing, ATM support, sockets and
RPC.
OS/390 is basically rebranded, repackaged MVS/OE, CMOS
processors, RAMAC disk arrays and open systems extension
to networking in VTAM, the principle being that if you can't
compete, rebrand what you have and tell everyone it's
something new.
Home (http://20
4.14
6.13
3.206/os390/index.html).
(1999-01-20)


1. (Named from the authors' initials) An
interpreted language included with many versions of Unix for
massaging text data developed by Alfred Aho, Peter Weinberger,
and Brian Kernighan in 197
8. It is characterised by C-like
syntax, declaration-free variables, associative arrays, and
field-oriented text processing.
There is a GNU version called gawk and other varients
including bawk, mawk, nawk, tawk. Perl was inspired
in part by awk but is much more powerful.
Unix manual page: awk(1).
{netlib WWW
(http://plan
9.att.com/netlib/research/index.html)}. {netlib
FTP (ftp://netlib.att.com/netlib/research/)}.
["The AWK Programming Language" A. Aho, B. Kernighan,
P. Weinberger, A-W 1988].
2. An expression which is awkward to manipulate
through normal regexp facilities, for example, one
containing a newline.
(1995-10-06)


A storage device manufacturer whose major
products are the Zip and Jaz removable disk drives and
Ditto tape drives. They became popular with an early
product called the Bernoulli Box.
These products fall in line with their focus set in 1994 "to
help people manage their stuff". The company's stated aim is
to create portable, fast, large and cheap storage solutions.
Iomega's major competitor in the growing market for removable
disks is SyQuest, who seem to always be a few weeks behind
them.
In general, Iomega target the Small Office/Home Office.
They are also investigating the growing digital photography
market which also needs large removable storage devices.
Iomega's president and CEO is Kim Edwards. They have nearly
2000 employees in offices world-wide. Revenue for the quarter
ending Dec 1996 was $371 million and net income was $20
million.
Headquarters: Roy, Utah, USA.
Home (http://www.iomega.com/index.html).
(1997-04-15)

(ARM) A company formed in 1990 by Acorn Computers
Ltd., Apple Computer, Inc. and VLSI Technology to market
and develop the Advanced RISC Machine microprocessor
family, originally designed by Acorn.
ARM Ltd. also designs and licenses peripheral chips and
supplies supporting software and hardware tools. In April
1993, Nippon Investment and Finance, a Daiwa Securities
company, became ARM's fourth investor. In May 1994 Samsung
became the sixth large company to have a licence to use the
ARM processor core.
The success of ARM Ltd. and the strategy to widen the
availability of RISC technology has resulted in its chips now
being used in a range of products including the {Apple
Newton}. As measured by an independent authority, more ARM
processors were shipped than SPARC chips in 199
3. ARM has
also sold three times more chips than the PowerPC
consortium.
Home (http://www.systemv.com/armltd/index.html)
E-mail: armltd.co.uk.
Address: Advanced RISC Machines Ltd. Fulbourn Road, Cherry
Hinton, Cambridge CB1 4JN, UK.
Telephone: +44 (1223) 400 400. Fax: +44 (1223) 400 4
10.
(1994-11-03)

Chartered in 1746 as the College of New
Jersey, Princeton was British North America's fourth college.
First located in Elizabeth, then in Newark, the College moved
to Princeton in 175
6. The College was housed in Nassau Hall,
newly built on land donated by Nathaniel and Rebeckah
FitzRandolph. Nassau Hall contained the entire College for
nearly half a century. The College was officially renamed
Princeton University in 1896; five years later in 1900 the
Graduate School was established.
Fully coeducational since 1969, Princeton now enrolls
approximately 6,400 students (4,535 undergraduates and 1,866
graduate students). The ratio of full-time students to
faculty members (in full-time equivalents) is eight to one.
Today Princeton's main campus in Princeton Borough and
Princeton Township consists of more than
5.5 million square
feet of space in 160 buildings on 600 acres. The University's
James Forrestal Campus in Plainsboro consists of one million
square feet of space in four complexes on 340 acres.
As Mercer County's largest private employer and one of the
largest in the Mercer/Middlesex/Somerset County region, with
approximately 4,830 permanent employees - including more than
1,000 faculty members - the University plays a major role in
the educational, cultural, and economic life of the region.
(http://www.princeton.edu/index.html)
(1994-01-19)

(PPC) A RISC microprocessor designed
to meet a standard which was jointly designed by Motorola,
IBM, and Apple Computer (the PowerPC Alliance). The
PowerPC standard specifies a common {instruction set
architecture} (ISA), allowing anyone to design and fabricate
PowerPC processors, which will run the same code. The PowerPC
architecture is based on the IBM POWER architecture, used in
IBM's RS/6000 workstations. Currently IBM and
Motorola are working on PowerPC chips.
The PowerPC standard specifies both 32-bit and 64-bit data
paths. Early implementations will be 32 bit; future
higher-performance implementations will be 64 bit
(e.g. PowerPC 601). A PowerPC has 32 integer registers
(32- or 64 bit) and 32 floating-point (IEEE standard 64 bit)
floating-point registers.
The POWER CPU chip and PowerPC have a (large) common core, but
both have instructions that the other doesn't. The PowerPC
offers the following features that POWER does not:
Support for running in little-endian mode.
Addition of single precision floating-point operations.
Control of branch prediction direction.
A hardware coherency model (not in Book I).
Some other floating-point instructions (some optional).
The real time clock (upper and lower) was replaced with the
time base registers (upper and lower), which don't count in
sec/ns (the decrementer also changed).
64-bit instruction operands, registers, etc. (in 64 bit
processors).
See also PowerOpen, PowerPC Platform (PReP).
{IBM PPC info
(http://fnctsrv0.chips.ibm.com/products/ppc/index.html)}.
(gopher://info.hed.apple.com/), "Apple Corporate News/"
(press releases), "Apple Technologies/" and "Product
Information/". (gopher://ike.engr.washington.edu/), "IBM
General News/", "IBM Product Announcements/", "IBM Detailed
Product Announcements/", "IBM Hardware Catalog/".
Usenet newsgroups: news:comp.sys.powerpc,
news:comp.sys.mac.hardware.
["Microprocessor Report", 16 October 1991].
(1994-09-30)


1. (regexp, RE) One of the {wild
card} patterns used by Unix utilities such as grep, sed
and awk and editors such as vi and Emacs. These use
conventions similar to but more elaborate than those described
under glob. A regular expression is a sequence of
characters with the following meanings:
An ordinary character (not one of the special characters
discussed below) matches that character.
A backslash () followed by any special character matches the
special character itself. The special characters are:
"." matches any character except NEWLINE; "RE*" (where
the "*" is called the "Kleene star") matches zero
or more occurrences of RE. If there is any choice, the
longest leftmost matching string is chosen, in most
regexp flavours.
"^" at the beginning of an RE matches the start of a line and
"$" at the end of an RE matches the end of a line.
[string] matches any one character in that string. If the
first character of the string is a "^" it matches
any character (except NEWLINE, in most regexp flavours)
and the remaining characters in the string. "-" may be used
to indicate a range of consecutive ASCII characters.
( RE ) matches whatever RE matches and
, where n is a
digit, matches whatever was matched by the RE between the nth
( and its corresponding ) earlier in the same RE. In
many flavours ( RE ) is used instead of ( RE )
The concatenation of REs is a RE that matches the
concatenation of the strings matched by each RE.
< matches the beginning of a word and > matches the end of a
word. In many flavours of regexp, > and < are are replaced
by "", the special character for "word boundary".
REm matches m occurences of RE. REm, matches m or
more occurences of RE. REm,n matches between m and n
occurences.
The exact details of how regexp will work in a given
application vary greatly from flavour to flavour. A comprehensive
survey of regexp flavours is found in Friedl 1997 (see below).
[Jeffrey E.F. Friedl, "{Mastering Regular
Expressions(http://enterprise.ic.gc.ca/~jfriedl/regex/index.html)},
O'Reilly, 199
7.]
2. Any description of a pattern composed from combinations
of symbols and the three operators:
Concatenation - pattern A concatenated with B matches a match
for A followed by a match for B.
Or - pattern A-or-B matches either a match for A or a match
for B.
Closure - zero or more matches for a pattern.
The earliest form of regular expressions (and the term itself)
were invented by mathematician Stephen Cole Kleene in the
mid-1950s, as a notation to easily manipulate "regular sets",
formal descriptions of the behaviour of {finite state
machines}, in regular algebra.
[S.C. Kleene, "Representation of events in nerve nets and
finite automata", 1956, Automata Studies. Princeton].
[J.H. Conway, "Regular algebra and finite machines", 1971, Eds
Chapman & Hall].
[Sedgewick, "Algorithms in C", page 294].
(1997-08-03)

(ATM, or "fast packet") A method for the
dynamic allocation of bandwidth using a fixed-size packet
(called a cell).
See also ATM Forum, Wideband ATM.
{ATM acronyms
(http://www.atmforum.com/atmforum/acronym_index.html)}.
{Indiana acronyms
(http://cell-relay.indiana.edu/cell-relay/FAQ/ATM-Acronyms.html)}.
[Data rate(s)?]
(1996-04-01)

The Jargon Lexicon

@@-party at'par`tee n. [from the @@-sign in an Internet address] (alt. @@-sign party at'si:n par`tee) A semi-closed party thrown for hackers at a science-fiction convention (esp. the annual World Science Fiction Convention or ``Worldcon'');
one must have a network address to get in, or at least be in company with someone who does. One of the most reliable opportunities for hackers to meet face to face with people who might otherwise be represented by mere phosphor dots on their screens. Compare boink. @comment ESR The first recorded @@-party was held at the Westercon (a U.S. western regional SF convention) over the July 4th weekend in 1980. It is not clear exactly when the canonical @@-party venue shifted to the Worldcon but it had certainly become established by Constellation in 198
3. Sadly, the @@-party tradition has been in decline since about 1996, mainly because having an @@-address no longer functions as an effective lodge pin. @comment from David Butterfield , 29 Feb 1996 @comment from Edward Hooper , 15 Feb 2000 We are informed, however, that rec.skydiving members have maintained a tradition of formation jumps in the shape of an @@. @comment from Ari Rapkin , 17 Jan 2001 @comment Here is a new link, which points to the picture itself, @comment but the picture is missing at the moment: @comment http://www.undercanopy.com/DevilsWorkshop/favorites/source/
6.html @comment thumbnail of the pic is at: @comment http://www.undercanopy.com/DevilsWorkshop/favorites/index.html @page

tnanotechnology nan'-oh-tek-no`l*-jee n. A hypothetical fabrication technology in which objects are designed and built with the individual specification and placement of each separate atom. The first unequivocal nanofabrication experiments took place in 1990, for example with the deposition of individual xenon atoms on a nickel substrate to spell the logo of a certain very large computer company. Nanotechnology has been a hot topic in the hacker subculture ever since the term was coined by K. Eric Drexler in his book Engines of Creation (Anchor/Doubleday, ISBN 0-385-19973-2), where he predicted that nanotechnology could give rise to replicating assemblers, permitting an exponential growth of productivity and personal wealth (there's an authorized transcription at http://www.foresight.org/EOC/index.html). See also blue goo, gray goo, nanobot. @comment from Josh Hall , 14 May 1990

tASCII as'kee n. [originally an acronym (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) but now merely conventional] The predominant character set encoding of present-day computers. The standard version uses 7 bits for each character, whereas most earlier codes (including early drafts of ASCII prior to June 1961) used fewer. This change allowed the inclusion of lowercase letters --- a major win --- but it did not provide for accented letters or any other letterforms not used in English (such as the German sharp-S @tex `ss' @end tex or the ae-ligature @tex `ae' @end tex which is a letter in, for example, Norwegian). It could be worse, though. It could be much worse. See EBCDIC to understand how. A history of ASCII and its ancestors is at http://www.wps.com/texts/codes/index.html. Computers are much pickier and less flexible about spelling than humans; thus, hackers need to be very precise when talking about characters, and have developed a considerable amount of verbal shorthand for them. Every character has one or more names --- some formal, some concise, some silly. Common jargon names for ASCII characters are collected here. See also individual entries for bang, excl, open, ques, semi, shriek, splat, twiddle, and Yu-Shiang Whole Fish. This list derives from revision
2.3 of the Usenet ASCII pronunciation guide. Single characters are listed in ASCII order; character pairs are sorted in by first member. For each character, common names are given in rough order of popularity, followed by names that are reported but rarely seen; official ANSI/CCITT names are surrounded by brokets: <>. Square brackets mark the particularly silly names introduced by INTERCAL@. The abbreviations ``l/r'' and ``o/c'' stand for left/right and ``open/close'' respectively. Ordinary parentheticals provide some usage information. @include ascii.tex @sp 1 @noindent The pronunciation of # as pound is common in the U.S. but a bad idea; Commonwealth Hackish has its own, rather more apposite use of pound sign (confusingly, on British keyboards the pound graphic @tex `sterling' @end tex happens to replace #;
thus Britishers sometimes call # on a U.S.-ASCII keyboard pound, compounding the American error). The U.S. usage derives from an old-fashioned commercial practice of using a # suffix to tag pound weights on bills of lading. The character is usually pronounced hash outside the U.S@. There are more culture wars over the correct pronunciation of this character than any other, which has led to the ha ha only serious suggestion that it be pronounced `shibboleth' (see Judges 12:6 in an Old Testament or Tanakh). The uparrow name for circumflex and leftarrow name for underline are historical relics from archaic ASCII (the 1963 version), which had these graphics in those character positions rather than the modern punctuation characters. The swung dash or approximation sign is not quite the same as tilde in typeset material @tex (it looks like this: $sim$) @end tex but the ASCII tilde serves for both (compare angle brackets). Some other common usages cause odd overlaps. The #, $, >, and & characters, for example, are all pronounced ``hex'' in different communities because various assemblers use them as a prefix tag for hexadecimal constants (in particular, # in many assembler-programming cultures, $ in the 6502 world, > at Texas Instruments, and & on the BBC Micro, Sinclair, and some Z80 machines). See also splat. The inability of ASCII text to correctly represent any of the world's other major languages makes the designers' choice of 7 bits look more and more like a serious misfeature as the use of international networks continues to increase (see software rot). Hardware and software from the U.S. still tends to embody the assumption that ASCII is the universal character set and that characters have 7 bits; this is a major irritant to people who want to use a character set suited to their own languages. Perversely, though, efforts to solve this problem by proliferating national character sets produce an evolutionary pressure to use a smaller subset common to all those in use. @comment This entry was based on the Usenet pronunciation guide, version
2.3 @comment from Steven Grady , 24 May 1990 @comment from Hugh McGuinness , 30 Nov 1990 (slosh) @comment from Ken Shirriff , 07 Dec 1990 @comment from Wayne Sanders , 10 Dec 1990 (hook) @comment from Graham Toal , 11 Dec 1990 (hash) @comment from Frederick G. M. Roeber , 14 Dec 1990 (wham) @comment from Jon McCown , 10 Dec 1990 (glitch, double-glitch, back-glitch, splat) @comment from Joseph M. Newcomer , 22 Feb 1991 (squirrelly) @comment from The Grey Wolf , 06 Mar 1991 (thump) @comment from Roland Hutchinson , 23 Mar 1991 (dots) @comment from Frederick G. M. Roeber , 14 Dec 1990 (thud, pit-thwong) @comment from Eric Fischer , 12 Oct 1999 @comment from Eric Fischer , 24 Jan 2000 @comment from Patrick Milligan , 27 Mar 2000 @comment from Brad Alldredge , 08 May 2000 @comment from Austin Donnelly , 23 Aug 2000 @comment from Loyd , 08 Oct 2000 (quiz)

Powyższe definicje pochodzą z wyrażeń: -party, nanotechnology, ascii